Subsequent to the conquest of Spain by the Moors. The uneven distribution of fertile land and the fact that Africans had been the majority population involved in the military conquest of Spain soon led to conflict between the two Islamic nations between the years of 739 AD and 746 AD. Notable battles at this time between the two groups included The Battle of Nobles in 740 AD and The Battle of Badoura on 741 AD.
The conflicts ended in 747 AD with a truce and an Arab Muslim ruler named Yusuf Al-Fihri was placed in control of Spain. He was later replaced by Abd-Al Rahman who was of mixed African and Arab descent and he developed a Muslim military force of 40,000 soldiers within the borders of Spain. Abd-Al Rahman developed roads and constructed mosques across Spain which was now established as an Islamic state under the full control of African and Arab Muslims. Spain was then established as part of the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate. In accordance with Islamic Law Christians and Jews were allowed to continue to practice their faith however some Spanish residents also converted to Islam. This period of time is termed by historians as the Islamic Golden Age. The cultivation of agriculture, canals and irrigation were introduced with, palm trees, lemon trees and orange groves were planted transforming the landscape of Spain into a beautiful region. The wealth of Al-Andalus (Spain). Within the city of Cordoba 70 libraries and 300 public baths were constructed. Muslims and non-Muslims alike travelled to Cordoba as it had become a centre of learning with the population growing to 500,000 people. In 784 AD the Great Mosque of Cordoba was developed which included 856 columns of marble, onyx and jasper.
The farming industry experienced a growth and foods from Africa and the middle-east were imported such as rice, sugarcane, fruits and vegetable. Writing paper was also introduced and the study of astronomy and science was established. In the southern city of Almeria, the ceramics industry blossomed and in the south eastern city of Murica the silk trade was established. The Africans and Arab Muslim army would later conquer the European nation of Sicily located of the coast of Italy in